Posts Tagged With: Place de la Bourse

 
 

Try Oenotourism by Bicycle in Bordeaux

Regardless if you are an oenophile, a vin lover or just getting your feet wet in the wine world, Bordeaux is the most renowned region for wine. Exploring wine, understanding the vinification process and sampling wine, Bordeaux is known for high quality, aged wines, and being  the world wine capital. Here you can enjoy some of the world’s most expensive reds and deliciously sweet white wines.

Wine’s existence in Bordeaux began with the Romans who occupied the area in the 1st century. Today Bordeaux is one of the oldest continuously producing wine communities in the world. The key success to the wines of this area is the combination of the maritime climate, the calcium rich soils, and the rivers, the Garonne and Dordogne that provide irrigation year round for continued vine growth.

The heart of the region, centered around the town of Bordeaux, is well known not just for their wines, but as an international destination filled with history and medieval architecture and for its connection to the rivers that flow through the area. The famed Cabernet Sauvignon producing Medoc region is where you will find some of the most esteemed wine villages along the left bank of the Garonne river. And the popular Saint-Émilion region on the right bank of the Dordogne produces Merlot with a reputation for superior wines. But this is not all Bordeaux has to offer, the region is also established for White Bordeaux wines produced from Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadet grapes. Vinified in the cooler parts of Bordeaux, sweet dessert wines are fermented naturally using a process called Botrytis. Botrytis concentrates the sugars in the grapes as they ripen and develops unique flavors that can only be found within this part of the region.  

In a nutshell, Oenotourisme is the purpose of traveling that centers around wine. Exploring and enjoying the production of the region plus the cultural heritage that unites it all together is a wine traveler’s dream. With almost 300,000 acres of vineyards and a multitude of wine options, Bordeaux is a top destination. So one might wonder the best way to explore the vast and largest wine growing region of France. The answer is by bicycle. Bicycles will take you on the streets that create Bordeaux’s iconic towns, past the historical monuments, along the rivers, and through the villages that are home to the wineries locally known as châteaux. It is within these villages where you will taste the most respected wines in the world and venture into the vineyards that grow the famed blends.  

City of Bordeaux 

The heart of the wine region is a bike friendly city offering paths of approximately 400 miles of bicycle trails. Traveling by bike through the walled city centre, you can explore sites like the grandiose Place de la Bourse square with a grand reflecting fountain and the iconic Bordeaux Cathedral. You may also find yourself stopping along the way to enjoy dining in a local cafe, popping into a shop on the Rue Sainte-Catherine or even finding unexpected historical treasures throughout this UNESCO World Heritage city centre. 

Within the city of Bordeaux, there are many paths to take you on adventures well beyond the wine regions. Bike through forests, into the outer regions to visit one of the many beautiful parks, like the nature reserve in Barails and you can even cycle all the way to the beaches on the Atlantic coast. Jumping onto one of the many paths available, you never know what hidden discoveries you will find as you explore the area guided or on your own. 

A relaxing hour-long ride is all it takes to lead you along both sides of the Garonne river. Start from the bell towers at the Place Pey Berland, cross the Pont de Pierre stone bridge to the right bank of the Garonne. Ride along the shores of the right bank, admiring the views of the city of Bordeaux across the river until you reach the Chaban-Delmas bridge which will take you back to the left bank. Crossing the river, you will find you are near the popular Chartrons district, the perfect stop to enjoy one of the many bistros or taverns before continuing along the river back to the bell towers where you began your ride. 

Left Bank

Within reach from the historic centre are the prestigious appellations of the Médoc region. Following “La Route de Vins des Bordeaux” by bicycle, you can enjoy a relaxed ride along the Garonne river into the countryside and through the villages where you will find yourself upon the famed vineyards of Bordeaux. 

Traveling from the city of Bordeaux in just 3 hours each way, you pass through some of the highest respected elite first growth wine producing château in France.  Château Margaux, Château Pichon Longueville, Château Latour, Château Lafite Rothschild and Château Mouton Rothschild, produce Bordeaux’s most valuable and esteemed wines. By bike, you can leisurely stop along the way and visit the vineyards of these most prestigious wine producers with plenty of time to sample some of the most expensive wines in the world. 

Alternately starting in the city, you can head south along the “Route des vins” into the birthplace of the region. The city of Graves is home to the only Premier Cru château outside the northern Medoc region, Château Haut Brion. Continuing on this path, you will pass some of the oldest château, and historical castles as you ride along the vineyards leading you into the Sauternes region to the Château d’Yquem whose vineyards are famed for its sweet White Bordeaux’s. 

Right Bank

Although not as accessible as the Left Bank from the city of Bordeaux, with the superb public transportation that Bordeaux offers, visiting the right bank is just a train ride away. Starting from the Gare de Bordeaux St Jean, a 30 minute ride will take you to the city of Libourne, the second largest city center in the Bordeaux region. Located in Saint-Émilion, Libourne is the main city of the Right Bank along the Dordogne river and the commercial location for the wines of the Right Bank and the Entre Deux Mer region. 

Saint-Émilion is the prime wine region of the Right bank and along with its neighboring area, Pomerol, as Grand Cru vineyards, produce the highly desired Merlot based blends of Bordeaux. 

Embarking on your two and half hour bike ride (without stops) will start from the train station in Libourne. Cycling northwest along the Right Bank of the Dordogne, you will find some of the largest castles, smallest villages and most approachable wines from world famous vineyards as you enjoy your ride to the town of Fronsac. Exploring Fronsac you will find historic sites dating back to Charlemagne and the Roman Empire as well as some highly reputable château vineyards. 

From Fronsac, moving east and passing through the French countryside vineyards of the picturesque Pomerol region you will  find yourself traveling to the rustic village of medieval St-Émilion, a UNESCO World Heritage site and another historic center for Bordeaux wines. Arriving in St-Émilion, explore the beautiful hilly town, visit the historical church and stop in at a local bistro to enjoy a meal with some locally produced Grand Cru vin before traveling on. 

Entre-Deux-Mer

Making your way back towards Libourne from Saint-Emilion, you will reach the Dordogne, and cross the river into the Entre Deux Mer region on your way to Graves de Vayres. Graves de Vayres is known for its terraced vineyards that produce both red sweet Merlot wines and dry white wines produced from Sauvignon Blanc. A reward for your biking travels will be reaching one of the most prestigious medieval castle’s built in the region, the Château de Vayres. Sitting on the left bank of the Dordogne river, a visit to this historic location will offer you a fantastic view into the past royal presence within the Bordeaux region. Exploring the beautiful château and the French and medieval gardens will be the perfect stop before your 30 minute ride traveling back to the Libourne train station. 

As the premium wine producer in France, Bordeaux offers many opportunities to fully explore the famed region as a wine traveler. However biking through Bordeaux will offer an immersion that you can not otherwise experience by motor vehicle and is a way to connect with Bordeaux on a more personal level, path by path. 

Did you know, many of these biking adventures, in addition to others, are provided excursions on a Bordeaux river cruise starting at the city of Bordeaux. What better way to enjoy seven days of vinitourism on both the Garonne and Dordogne rivers visiting the many châteaux along the way. Familiarizing yourself with the region and sampling some of the finest wines are all expected when visiting Bordeaux. But imagine your experience when you explore on one of the bicycles included onboard, guided or on your own. Spend your time cruising the rivers, bicycling the beautiful French countryside and enjoying the wines that have made this the most famous wine region in the world. Wine travel doesn’t get any better than this!

If this sounds like your perfect vacation, join us starting on June 9, 2022 for a 7 night Bordeaux river cruise. Let us guide you through this fantastic wine experience. Space is limited. Learn more about Traveling the Rivers of Bordeaux and inquire for more information here

Categories: Active Travel, Bucket List, Eco-Friendly, River Cruise, Romance, Sustainable Travel, Wine | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment
 
 

Beyond Wine in the City of Bordeaux

Bordeaux, a world renowned wine region and for good reason. Within the total area are many wine appellations filled with over 8,000 chateau and vineyards all produce some of the most sought after, best aging, highest quality and most expensive wines in the world. 

Chateau Margaux Grand Cru

Wine and Bordeaux’s relationship date back 2000 years, since it’s time as a commercial center for the Roman Empire. Today Bordeaux provides one-fourth of the production of the best wines in France. 

The greater Bordeaux region is located in southwestern France where crescent shaped land surrounds and is surrounded by the Garonne and Dordogne rivers and the Gironde river, respectively. 

Within the region of Bordeaux, on the left bank of the Garonne river you will find the port city and capital of the Nouvelle Aquitaine region, similarly named, “Bordeaux”. 

A popular location as the starting point for a wine experience, the city of Bordeaux also offers history, architecture, culture, dining, shopping and so much more. When taking a break from your “wine travels” or completely venturing out to see all that the city of Bordeaux has to offer, the best place to start is within the seven districts of the city of Bordeaux that each has its own flair, its own history and offers its own unique Bordelais experience.

Old Town

Porte Calihau

The birthplace of the city of Bordeaux started here as the Roman city of Burdigala transforming over 2000 years into the primary city centre and heart of the downtown area. The location of the port entrance and where the economy that developed Bordeaux into a major city was built upon. It is here that you will find some of the oldest architecture and history of the city. Visiting the local landmarks of the Porte Cailhau, the Pont de Pierre, Saint-Pierre church, the iconic and recognizable Place de la Bourse along the Garonne river and its modern counterpart the must see Miroir d’eau reflecting pool which is the most photographed location in Bordeaux. The Old Town is also the location of the Rue Saint-Catherine, the longest pedestrian shopping street in France. 

Grand Hommes

Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux

The upscale region of the city, known as the “Golden Triangle” of parishes offering beautifully elegant stone buildings and boulevards featuring well maintained city squares like the Place des Quinconces, the Place Tourny shopping district and some of Bordeaux’s top restaurants, luxurious boutiques and the Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux, Place de la Comédie. Grand Hommes is the area to see and be seen as you explore the city and outer regions of Bordeaux.  

Saint Seurin – Fondaudège

Jardin Botanique de Bordeaux

The residential district northwest of the Grand Hommes, named for the oldest cemetery in Bordeaux, Saint Seurin, is within walking distance to the old town. A quiet upscale area featuring a mixture of modern architecture with old stone buildings and beautiful gardens. This where you will find the Jardin Botanique to venture out for a local experience. However if mixing with the locals is not of interest, the area is still visit worthy for the Palais Gallien, a former Roman arena and one of the only remaining forms of architecture from the Gallo-Roman era in Bordeaux and the Natural History museum located at the edge of the Jardin.  

Town Hall District

Bordeaux Cathedral

South of the Saint Seurin district and west of the Old Town, you will find the district with both visitors and locals enjoying the centrally located and symbolic Place Gambetta square. Other visitors may be searching out the once medieval residence, Palais Rohan that today is Bordeaux’s Town Hall (Hôtel De Ville) home of the Museum of Fine Arts. Not far from there is the most beautiful and primary Cathedral within Bordeaux, Saint Andrew and the adjacent and popular Pey – Beland bell tower. Within this district is also where you can discover the antique district and the Museum of Decorative Arts and Design located in one of the most beautifully decorated 18th century mansions of Bordeaux. 

The Saints District

Gare Saint-Jean

In the southernmost district of the city is the Saint – Jean train station the neighborhood of Saint-Michel and the Saint-Croix church. As the central location where train passengers are passing through all day long, this area is filled with local immersion. Le Marché des Capucins is a local market open early morning until early afternoon and is worth exploring for fresh regional and popular items to sample and bring home. Come back to the area in the evening for a truly Bordelaisen experience heading to one of the many restaurants, bars and clubs where you will find an energetic and animated crowd of both travelers and locals.  Also located within this district is the Quai de Paludate popular with the locals for music and nightlife. 

La Bastide

Pont de Pierre Bridge to La Bastide District

The city of Bordeaux is not completely limited to the left side of the Garonne river. On the right bank is the recently gentrified neighborhood of La Bastide. The former industrial area has been built up with restaurants and movie theatres in a newly developed urban area and features fantastic views of the historic Old Town from across the Garonne. Within the district you can find a newly developed botanical garden. The Jardin botanique de la Bastide features six different garden areas including a water garden and an arboretum. 

Bassins a Flot

Crossing back across the Garonne via the Chaban Delmas bridge is the district of Bassins a flot. The most northern area of the city is the location of the city’s river commercial docks, once home to the largest port in Europe. Despite it’s maritime history this is where you can now find the most modernistic and futuristic architecture in the world, better known as the wine tower, the La Cité du Vin museum. Walking the paths along the river quay you will pass barges and other relics of the area’s river past and eventually you will reach the Bordeaux Submarine base. One of five sub bases built by the Italians during World War II, the bunker has been repurposed into a multicultural building with the Bassins de Lumiere art museum, and offers various concerts throughout the year.

Chartrons

Saint-Louis-des-Chartrons

Last but not least is the most eclectic of Bordeaux districts. North of the Old Town district is the original home of the 14th century Chartreux Abbey. The historic neighborhood has been restored from its dilapidated existence into a chic bohemian experience offering a centrally located public garden and featuring the Place du Marché Chartrons marketplace filled with local merchants offering river and locally sourced food like oysters, foie gras and macarons. Explore the nearby Saint-Louis Cathedral and also within this district you will find riverside dining and the Quai des Marques shopping area filled with cafe’s and boutiques for the hipster in all of us. With all the activity that happens here, it is not surprising that this is the location where the quays for river boats dock making it a popular location for tourism and travelers looking for a Bordeaux experience.  

Looking beyond Bordeaux’s wine presence, you can see that the city of Bordeaux is abundant in culture and experiences and offers an internationally cosmopolitan vibe. The many areas throughout the city are vibrant and yet each offers its own unique reasons for visiting. The city draws a romance of it’s own. Read more specifically to find Romance in Bordeaux. 

If the vins of France are on your menu, read more about Traveling the Vins of Bordeaux and its relationship to wine travel or Sample the Flavors of Bordeaux comparing the wines of the Right to the Left Bank and with the Entre deux Mer regions of Bordeaux.  

No matter how you choose to explore the region, one of our very favorite experiences that brings all of these experiences to you in one amazing week is by river cruise. Learn more about river cruising from our website

Categories: Active Travel, Eat like a local, Eco-Friendly, Experience, River Cruise, Romance, Travel Bucket List, Wine | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment
 
 

Find Romance in Bordeaux

A UNESCO World Heritage site for its eighteenth century city-scape that still looks as it did hundreds of years ago, Bordeaux presents many experiences for finding romance within the city and others within an hours drive of the city.

Just 2 hours by train outside Paris (the city of love), the capital city of the Nouvelle Aquitaine region of France, Bordeaux is most noted for its association to the highest quality French wines. One of the most important wine producers and exporters in the world with the largest number of AOC “controlled designation of origin” classification vineyards in France. She is often referred  to asla perle d’Aquitaine” (pearl of the Aquitaine) and “Petit (mini) Paris”. This port city along the Garonne river offers as much as other urban cultural centers provide, but also leaves a small village impression in her old city. A gorgeous well maintained medieval city is perfect for couples looking for or celebrating romance to indulge and lose themselves within her boundaries.

Here are 15 opportunities to find romance in Bordeaux and the Bordeaux region: 

1. Fairytale Romance at Porte Cailhau

A must see stop when visiting Bordeaux, Porte Calihau will give you the best views of the city. The impressive castle-like architecture was built in Gothic-renaissance cross over styles with both decorative and defensive features in 1494. The building has not changed in its many hundreds of years in existence when it was re-created as the entrance to the city from the Garonne river. The triumphal arch stands at almost 115 feet, climbing the stairs to the top floor of this beautiful building is where you will find an exhibition of her existence and most importantly where you can enjoy the romantic river views with sightings of the oldest bridge in Bordeaux, the Pont de Pierre. 

2. Cross the Pont de Pierre Bridge 

Connecting the left and right banks of the Garonne river, Pont de Pierre means “mason bridge” which is the French translation for stone bridge. The 1600 foot bridge was designed by Napoleon so his troops could easily cross the Garonne. Not surprisingly, the bridge has 17 arches for the number of letters in the name Napoleon Bonaparte. To maintain the structure of the bridge, it is closed to automobiles and only accessible by foot, bicycle or tram. The perfect opportunity to take a romantic walk or bike ride along the footpath of the bridge to enjoy the scenery. Depending on the time of day and the tides the day that you cross the bridge, you will have different views of the river. 

3. Have a Secular Experience at Bordeaux Cathedral

Even if you are not religious, a stop at the Cathedral Saint Andre is worth the visit especially the Tour Pey-Berland bell-tower. A UNESCO World Heritage site in the heart of the old city, the Notre Dame d’Aquitaine started as a Romanesque church originally built in 1096 AD and then modified in the Gothic style between the 12th and 16th centuries. Some highlights of the church are the exterior spires and the bell-tower that was built in the early 15th century. Separated from the rest of the cathedral, the bell-tower is a historic French monument. Tour Pey-Berland named after the archbishop who commissioned it, features three monumental bells, named Marie, Clémence and Marguerite that ring next to a larger 8 ton tenor bell named Ferdinand-André. A climb up the 231 step spiral staircase to the second terrace at the top offers romantic picture-worthy panoramic city views. 

4. Journey into Wine together at La Cite du Vin

Before embarking into Bordeaux’s wines and local vineyards, immerse yourself in the fun and educational wine experience of Bordeaux’s Wine museum. The highly sensory experience starts as you enter the contemporary design of the building and continues with a one of a kind complete wine experience. Taking you into the world of wines from their creation in 6000BC to the modern day mechanics and innovation that makes up the wine industry with exhibitions, wine tasting workshops and pairings, seminars and events held throughout the year. Located on the West bank of Bordeaux between the historic districts for local vintage production and wine manufacturing, the museum was designed to focus on the worldwide wine culture instead of the local wine experience. On the romance side, there is a fantastic wine bar called Belvedere on the top floor, with a wide selection of wines from around the world to be enjoyed with a panoramic view of Bordeaux.

5. Visit one of the Most Romantic Restaurants in Bordeaux  

Centrally located in the old town of Bordeaux, La Tupina is a small country inn style restaurant that will offer you a romantic and intimate dining experience. Centered around the fireplace within the dining establishment, in the fireplace sits a cauldron (La Tupina in French) that is used daily to create their signature soups, roasted meats and other traditional hearty dishes from the region. Offering both Prix Fixe menus including wine and mineral waters or a la carte options, the farm to table experience is traditional South-West French cuisine at its best. Michelin rated, reservations are highly recommended.

6. Shop the Marche des Chartrons

A highlight of a French experience is the local markets. Happening each Sunday The quay Market is located along the Garonne river. An outdoor market has sixty+ stands with a variety of local specialties, meats, cheeses, olives, breads, pastries, plates of local seafood’s in addition to crafts, flowers  and other products that are not found anywhere else. If you are not in Bordeaux for the popular Sunday market, head to Marché des Capucins which is Bordeaux’s main market hall noted as one of the largest halls in the southwest region of France.

7. Relax at the Bordeaux Public Garden 

If you have visited France before you know the parks and gardens offer an experience unlike any other. Providing your usual park amenities like walking paths and playgrounds, it’s the additional amenities that make this experience the perfect venue for a romantic outing. Located in the center of the city of Bordeaux and made up of 2700 acres with a central pond and many open spaces with trees and beautiful landscaping. Here is where you can take cue from the locals and stop to enjoy a bottle of wine and plate of local cheese from the market while relaxing on a romantic Bordelais kind of day. You can also find within the park a botanical garden, 19th century carousel, cafe/bar terrace and the Museum of Natural History. 

8. Take Selfies at the Place de la Bourse et Miroir d’Eau

Bordeaux’s most iconic symbol is the Place Royale and Water Mirror reflecting pool. Built over 20 years in the mid 1700’s, facing the Garonne river, the classical French architecture of the Place Royal was built as a town square. She played a major role in the city’s development, trade, and reputation throughout its years of existence. Originally built as hotels, the buildings today are used as government offices and event venues. Across from the palace along the quay of the river is the iconic Water Mirror the world’s largest reflecting pool. Built in the early 2000’s locals will tell you that the pool with the Place Royal in the background at dusk is the perfect  photo spot to commemorate your romantic visit to Bordeaux. 

9. Enjoy a Concert at the Bordeaux Grand Theatre

The Bordeaux Opera House was built by wooden-frame in the 1780’s as a opera house but also became the home to the origin of the ballet in the region. One of the oldest opera houses in Europe, she was designed in the neoclassical style. The building exterior features Corinthian columns and statues representing the nine muses and three Greek goddesses, Juno, Venus and Minerva. A highlight of the interior is the grand staircase and fresco painted on the ceiling of the auditorium that pays tribute to the city of Bordeaux in a neoclassical style. Still in use today you too can enjoy a sophisticated and romantic adult evening of opera, ballet, symphony or musical concert while visiting. With a tram stop just out front, you can easily get to/from other parts of the city for an early dinner, late bite or a night cap.  

10. Cycle the Vineyard Countryside

Bordeaux is famous for the dry, sweet red wines and sparkling whites grown here. Grab an e bike and head out on your own at your own pace or jump onto a half day or full day tour and cycle through Bordeaux’s famous wine region with an English speaking guide. Did you know 22 bottles of wine from Bordeaux are sold every second all over the world? A must do Bordeaux tour will have you riding romantic country roads, enjoying tasting wines from the vineyards and visiting some of the historic chateaus along the way. Purchase a bottle of wine and find an intimate spot to enjoy it before riding back to Bordeaux.

11. Pamper your Senses at Chateau Margaux.

Located on the left bank of the Garonne river in the Medoc region, Chateau Margaux holds the highest classification of Bordeaux wine classifications as a Premier Cru vineyard for its historic wine-making and growth innovations. Sampling the wines themselves is a real treat since the Premier vintages grown and sold are some of the most expensive in the industry. A highlight of a visit is walking the romantic property which is one of the most beautiful chateaux in the Bordeaux region. If you decide you would like to purchase wine, there are other lower cost vintages, note they don’t adhere to the high appellation directives as the Premier Cru but are still highly respectable and enjoyable. 

12. Get Lost in Saint-Emilion

A medieval town 45 minutes from Bordeaux in the wine hills is the center of wine making in the region. A UNESCO World Heritage Site, the town offers romantically picturesque “cultural landscape” and equally romantic experiences. Saint-Emilion is made up of 8 villages each notable for its vineyards but also offering impressive historical sites and local gastronomy from recipes passed down from generation to generation. Here is the perfect location to explore and sneak into a small local restaurant or cafe for a romantic meal with some local vin.

13. Launch your Relationship to New Heights in the Arcachon Basin

Just under an hours drive southwest from Bordeaux is the Dune of Pilat. A popular attraction for visitors as the tallest sand dune in Europe, it sits along the Arcachon Bay. The dune runs parallel to the shoreline behind the beach and blue Atlantic waters. Add some adventure into your vacation, due to the steepness of the dune, paragliding is a popular activity here and a way for you both to check it off of your bucket lists. 

After gliding high above the dunes or taking a dip in the bay, head on to some of the local towns along the bay to enjoy sampling the amazing Arcachon Oysters. The bay has almost 30 oyster farms and produces upwards of 8,000 tons of oysters annually. There are four growing regions and each region produces its own oyster to sample the various local flavors and enjoy a romantic aphrodisiac with some local wine. 

14. Take a Personal Spa Day

The Vinothérapie Spa at the Les Sources de Caudalie hotel offers unique spa rituals in a beautiful and rustic setting. Featuring a natural hot spring, the same minerals that help create the best wines in France are the ones that offer properties for an invigorating spa experience. Featuring treatments that include grape and vine extracts for relaxing baths and purifying wraps, scrubs, facial, hand and foot treatments and grape seed massages to indulge in every moment. Located just 20 minutes outside of Bordeaux’s city center, the hotel offers a perfect and romantic balance of exploration and relaxation for a day or as your base for your Bordeaux experience. 

15. Cruise the Rivers around Bordeaux

Photo From AmaWaterways River Cruise

The best way to experience the Garonne and Dordogne rivers and admire Bordeaux’s waterfront is during a seven night scenic river cruise round-trip from Bordeaux. A romantic cruise tour offers boutique accommodations with the opportunity to explore the sights, enjoy the tastes and immerse in the culture of the region while traveling. Inclusive in your experience are many of the experiences and others that have been mentioned above. 

For more information on river cruising and to find out if it is the right fit for your luxury travel experience, take our quiz.

Categories: Experience, Food, River Cruise, Romance, Travel, Travel Bucket List, Vacation, Wellness, Wine | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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